Traveling in the other direction are Oregonians who migrate to work for employers in other states. There were about 48,000 people who lived in Oregon, but worked out of state in 2011. This resulted in a net inflow of about 50,000 workers to Oregon that influences the economy in a variety of ways. This article focuses on where nonresident workers live, their contribution to Oregon's General Fund, and their effect on Oregon's per capita personal income.
The fact that people live in neighboring states and work in Oregon isn't surprising. But what about workers living in Texas, New York, Florida, and other far away states? Their numbers more than tripled between 2002 and 2011, but they're not likely crossing the Snake River on I-84 each morning to get to work. Nonresident workers may live in both states but maintain their primary residence outside Oregon, or work in Oregon on temporary assignment, or they may have moved during the year and their residency status wasn't updated yet. Residency is assigned by the U.S. Census Bureau based on data from federal agencies such as the Internal Revenue Service and the Social Security Administration, so basically where the worker files their taxes is considered home.
One possible explanation for the growing number of nonresident workers is the rise in teleworking - regular employees working outside the conventional workplace and interacting with others via communication technologies. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the number of people working from home in Oregon increased by 10,828 from 2007 to 2012. There's a good chance that teleworkers are driving some of the increase in Oregon's nonresident workers.
|Where Oregon Workers Live by State, 2011|
|Number of Workers||Share of All Oregon Workers||Share of Nonresident Workers|
|All Other Locations||3,756||0.2%||3.8%|
|Source: U.S. Census, On the Map|
The Oregon personal income tax liability of Washington residents was $208 million in 2011, with two-thirds coming from Clark County residents. In fact, Clark County would rank eighth among Oregon counties for Oregon personal income liability (if it were in Oregon). The Oregon personal income tax liability of Californians was $34 million, Idaho residents were responsible for $16 million, and $93 million came from residents of other areas outside Oregon.
With a net $3.2 billion in earnings by the inflow of nonresident workers in 2013, Oregon had the fourth-largest net out adjustment for residency of any state in the BEA's calculation of PCPI. That's an average of $32,091 per nonresident worker that is not counted as personal income in Oregon. The large adjustment is a result of Oregon's major employment center - Portland, with about half of the state's jobs - being right on the border with Washington. If Oregon had no net inflow of workers in 2013, Oregon's PCPI would have been about $800 higher and would have stood at 92 percent relative to the nation's PCPI, instead of 90 percent. In other words, nonresident workers account for roughly one-fifth of the gap between Oregon's PCPI and the nation's.
To explore and use the data available from OnTheMap, visit  onthemap.ces.census.gov/.