According to the Welding Leader, the art of blacksmithing, or forge welding, was developed during the Middle Ages from the 5th to the 15th century. Blacksmithing produced items made of iron that were welded together by applying heat and hammering. Then with the onset of the industrial revolution in the late 1800s, many pieces fell in place to make welding a driving force in manufacturing, including the invention of arc welding as we know it today.
In the last 100 years, welding processes have proven vital to the economical fabrication of almost all metal items. World Wars I and II both depended on quick and reliable methods for joining metals for implements of warfare. Over the last 50 years, welding and material joining has become more automated, productive, and safer. New processes - such as electron beam welding, friction welding, plasma arc welding, friction stir welding, explosion welding, and laser beam welding - have increased the range of materials and components that can be welded. Also, industrial robots and computer-controlled automated welding are used today to improve both quality and productivity.
Most welding done today falls into one of two categories: arc welding (the use of an electrical arc to melt the work materials) and torch welding (the use of an oxyacetylene torch to melt the working material and welding rod). There are more than 100 welding processes that a welder can use and most involve a skilled worker using a high-heat torch, filler material that is usually in wire or stick form, and pressure to permanently bond metal pieces.
Cutters use heat to cut and trim metal objects to a specific size. While the work of cutters is related to that of welders and solderers, cutters use heat from an electric arc or gases to cut and trim metal objects rather than joining them.
Workers in these occupations may work indoors or outdoors - sometimes in bad weather or in a confined area - and occasionally work at high elevations. Safety procedures are important for workers to follow due to frequent exposure to hazardous conditions that include extremely hot materials and intense light. To avoid injuries, safety procedures should be followed such as safety shoes, goggles, masks with protective lenses, and other equipment to prevent burns and eye injuries.
The Employment Department's Occupational Information Center site at www.QualityInfo.org/olmisj/OIC provides additional information on this occupation including current employment openings, regional wage information, training programs, and other Oregon-specific information.
No statewide license is required for welding, cutting, soldering, and brazing workers in Oregon although welders who work on particular projects such as bridges, boilers, and other more specialized jobs do have special licensing and certification requirements. These applicants must pass an exam and demonstrate their skill and knowledge of welding. Welding certification standards are defined by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American Welding Society.
Training for this occupation varies broadly from a few weeks of schooling or on-the-job training to several years of combined schooling and on-the-job training. Most welders, according to the Oregon Career Information System, learn their job skills through a formal training program either in high school, professional-technical schools or two-year colleges. Some branches of the military also train people to be welders and metal workers.
The latest Instructional Program Report on the Educational Information Center at www.QualityInfo.org/olmisj/EIC shows that 261 people completed welding technology training in Oregon's academic institutions during the 2010-2011 academic year (Graph 1). Training typically involves instruction in arc welding, resistance welding, brazing and soldering, cutting, high beam welding and cutting, solid state welding, ferrous and non-ferrous materials, oxidation-reduction reactions, welding metallurgy, and other welding processes and standards.
The largest number of welding-technology program completers (94) earned a certificate from one of Oregon's 13 Community Colleges in 2010-2011. Another 20 percent (53) earned an associate's degree. A large number of students (87) received their welding training in one of the four Job Corps training programs in Oregon. To qualify for Job Corps training, participants must be 16 to 24 years of age, meet low-income criteria, and face one or more barriers to employment. According to Kristopher Norton, one of Job Corps' Career Transition Specialists, welding training is a popular program and usually takes six to nine months to complete. Kristopher estimates that at least 90 percent of students who complete their training are placed in an entry level job or choose to move on for additional training.
Welders and solderers work in a very large occupation. In 2010, there were more than 337,000 welders in the nation and more than 4,000 in Oregon. Employment growth is expected to be higher than average for this occupation through the year 2020, at 15 percent nationally and nearly 22 percent statewide. In Oregon, there are expected to be 220 annual openings which include both new and replacement job openings.
Because the basic skills of welding are the same across all industries, it is relatively easy for these workers to use their transferable skills when moving from one industry to another. Expected growth in the defense industry along with future demand for repair of the nation's aging infrastructure will continue to contribute to the high demand for workers in this occupation.