Oregon Indian Tribal Gaming and Employment

by Dallas Fridley

June 7, 2018

In 1987, the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed the authority of tribal governments to establish gaming operations independent of state regulation provided that the state in question permits some form of gaming. Congress took up the issue of tribal gaming and conducted a series of hearings, ultimately culminating in the passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA).

The National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) – www.nigc.gov – is an independent federal regulatory agency of the United States that was established pursuant to the IGRA. The NIGC website provides a list of gaming tribes and reports on tribal gaming revenue. According to the NIGC, there are eight Indian casinos operating in Oregon.

Nationally, the Indian gaming industry has grown from one that produced $5.5 billion in total revenues in 1995, to one that reached $31.2 billion in FY 2016. Since 2012, the Indian gaming industry has experienced 3.0 percent growth annually. The most recent Indian gaming statistics, provided by the NIGC, indicate that in FY 2016 there were more than 484 Indian gaming establishments in the United States across 29 states.

California and Northern Nevada alone generated $8.4 billion in gaming revenues at 71 Indian gaming operations. In Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, Indian tribes operated 52 gaming facilities and generated $3.2 billion in revenues. Nationally, tribal gaming operations with revenues in excess of $250 million accounted for 46 percent of Indian gaming revenue in FY 2016 but represented just 6.8 percent of gaming operations, numbering 33.

The contributions of Indian gaming to Oregon’s economy were analyzed by ECONorthwest over 2012 and 2013. According to the report, Indian tribal gaming stimulated more than $1.4 billion in total economic output statewide, supporting 11,510 jobs and $237.1 million in wages and benefits. Grants and donations from Indian tribes to local charities totaled $6.9 million in 2013.

Indian Gaming Facilities in Oregon

Each of Oregon’s nine federally recognized tribes have operated a casino. The Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Indians was the first, opening Cow Creek Indian Bingo in 1992, which was quickly expanded into Seven Feathers Casino. Five additional casinos were operating by the end of 1995:

  • Wildhorse – Confederated Tribes of Umatilla
  • Chinook Winds – Confederated Tribes of Siletz
  • Indian Head – Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs
  • The Mill – Coquille Indian Tribe
  • Spirit Mountain – Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde
Kla-Mo-Ya Casino – operated by the Klamath Tribes – opened in 1997, followed by Old Camp Casino – operated by the Burns Paiute Tribe – in 1998. The Old Camp Casino closed in late 2012 and plans for a new facility were announced but have yet to materialize. Indian Head Casino changed its name to Kah-Nee-Ta High Desert Resort & Casino in February of 2001, but a new, expanded facility opened in 2012, reverting back to the Indian Head Casino title. Three Rivers Casino – operated by the Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw – opened in 2004. An additional gaming facility, Three Rivers Casino-Coos Bay, opened in 2013.
In addition to the nine operating casinos, Oregon’s Indian tribal government employment is spread out across 18 counties. Casino gaming does dominate the employment profile of Indian tribal government, but there are also many other industries and activities that provide jobs.

Oregon’s Indian Tribal Employment Profile

The Indian tribal government employment series dates back to 1995 when it was moved out of private and into local government ownership. In its first year, the Indian tribal government series averaged 3,200 jobs. Although a comparative employment figure for 1994 isn’t available, Indian tribal government entered 1995 with just 2,200 jobs and by December its total reached 4,200, a gain of 2,000 jobs.

Indian tribal government averaged 6,300 workers in 1998, a gain of 3,100 or nearly 100 percent over its 1995 average. And the industry continued to grow, adding 2,500 jobs to average 8,800 in 2012, an increase of nearly 40 percent.

Since 2012, however, Indian tribal government has pulled back, falling to 8,200 jobs in 2015, where it remained in 2016 and 2017. On the payroll side, Indian tribal government shelled out $325 million in 2017 wages and salaries and paid an average of $39,529.
Indian tribal governments in Oregon operated 78 employer units in the 15 counties shown in the table. Public administration, which typically represents government administrative functions, provided jobs for just over 2,500 workers – or 30.5 percent of the industry’s 2017 average.

Outside government administrative work and leisure and hospitality, about 12 percent of Indian tribal government jobs were found in industries that include agriculture, utilities, construction, manufacturing, retail trade, information, financial activities, professional and business services, educational and health services, and other services. In 2017 there were about 950 jobs in this catch-all group.

Nearly 58 percent of the Indian tribal government total was generated by the leisure and hospitality group, which includes amusement, gambling, recreation and casino hotels. Indian tribal employment in the leisure and hospitality group averaged 4,750 jobs in 2017.


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