Paralegals and Legal Assistants, the Unsung Heroes of the Legal World

by Lynn Wallis

August 17, 2018

Once considered a glorified secretary, paralegals and legal assistants have evolved into much more. The terms legal assistant and paralegal are used interchangeably, much like the terms attorney and lawyer. This profession was created in the 1960s in an effort to assist attorneys with their increasing caseload and extend access to the legal system to more socioeconomic groups, according to the Online Paralegal Degree Center. Private law firms, businesses, and governmental agencies quickly recognized the benefits of employing specially trained individuals to provide services at lower billing rates, benefiting the client and increasing efficiency.

The American Bar Association (ABA) first recognized the paralegal profession in 1968 and has defined a legal assistant or paralegal as “a person qualified by education, training or work experience who is employed or retained by a lawyer, law office, corporation, governmental agency, or other entity and who performs specifically delegated substantive legal work for which a lawyer is responsible.” Since its inception, the paralegal profession has consistently experienced growth, both in the number of paralegals practicing and the type and level of responsibilities.

Possibly the most famous legal assistant in modern times is Erin Brockovich, a legal clerk with no formal education in law. She was instrumental in winning a $333 million settlement in 1993 against the Pacific Gas and Electric Company after it leaked dangerous chemicals into the local drinking water. Her story was later immortalized in the film Erin Brockovich, starring Julia Roberts.

A Day in the Life of a Paralegal

Paralegals have a variety of backgrounds, experience, education, duties, and responsibilities across a broad range of practice areas. This profession performs the same functions as attorneys except those generally prohibited by law, such as setting legal fees, presenting cases in court, and giving legal advice. In practice, the work of a paralegal can range from serving as a file clerk to a paraprofessional who drafts documents, secures affidavits, and interviews clients.

Their exact responsibilities will vary depending on the employer and the paralegal’s level of education and legal expertise. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), a paralegal or legal assistant typically performs the duties listed in the table below. Paralegals may specialize in a wide array of areas such as litigation, personal injury, corporate law, criminal law, employee benefits, intellectual property, bankruptcy, immigration, family law, and real estate.
Work Environment and Pay

Paralegals work in a variety of settings, but they’re most commonly employed by law firms, government agencies, and legal departments at corporations. According to the Oregon Employment Department, the main industries of employment are private legal services (74.6%) local government (5.7%) and management of companies (3.4%). The average wage in Oregon for paralegals is $25.88 an hour or $53,832 per year. The lowest 10 percent earn $15.66 an hour and the highest paid paralegals earn $37.89 an hour.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, women dominate this profession and made up 87 percent of all paralegals and legal assistants in the United States in 2016. By contrast, women made up only 36 percent of lawyers in the same year.

Much Diversity in Education

According to the National Federation of Paralegal Associations, paralegal education has evolved from a handful of programs to several hundred across the United States in only three decades. There are currently more than 1,000 programs offering certificates and degrees in paralegal studies in the United States. These programs vary greatly in cost, length, course requirements, semester hours, and format.

Both the American Bar Association (ABA) and the American Association for Paralegal Education (AAPE) offer a voluntary approval process for paralegal educational programs. To qualify as an approved educational program by the ABA, educational programs must satisfy stringent requirements supervised by the ABA’s Standing Committee on Paralegals. Approval by the ABA or the AAPE guarantees the program meets certain criteria of rigor and comprehensiveness. Educational programs for paralegals vary and may or may not be approved or accredited. Employers as well as the professional organizations that offer national certification may require that the educational programs be accredited, American Bar Association (ABA) approved, or both.

There are several paths and no set requirements for becoming a paralegal. Some states have considered requiring licensure for paralegals, similar to lawyers, which is an important issue for paralegals today. According to the BLS, the majority of paralegals and legal assistants have an associate’s degree in paralegal studies, or a bachelor’s degree in another field and a certificate in paralegal studies. There are also instances where employers hire college graduates with a bachelor degree with no legal experience or education and train them on the job.

Earning voluntary certification after completing an educational program may help applicants become more competitive in the job market. There are three major national organizations that offer professional certification to paralegals who meet voluntary regulation standards: The National Association of Legal Assistants, The National Federation of Paralegal Associations, and the Association for Legal Professionals. After successfully completing the exam, paralegals become ‘certified paralegals’ which is a designation preferred by some employers.

Future Trends and New Opportunities

In Oregon, there were 3,374 paralegals and legal assistants in 2017, making up nearly one-fourth (24%) of all jobs in legal occupations. This occupation is expected to grow faster than average or by 13 percent from 2017 to 2027, adding 440 new jobs and providing 3,576 replacement openings. This occupation attracts many applicants, so competition will be strong. Experienced, formally trained and educated paralegals with strong computer and database management skills should have the best prospects.

According to the BLS, as law firms strive to lower their costs of operation, they are expected to hire more paralegals and legal assistants. Also, many large corporations are increasing their internal legal departments to cut costs, as it is often less expensive to have an in-house legal department rather than retain outside counsel.

The profession will likely see changes in coming years, as a number of states are looking at regulating the profession and instituting standardized educational requirements. Also, some states have expressed an interest in examining a limited-practice licensing program.

California’s State Bar Board of Trustees, for example, is now considering a limited-practice licensing program that would create a new class of professionals who could give legal advice on a limited basis. The state of Washington, through the Washington State Supreme Court, is the first state to have actually approved a new “legal technician” rule. The rule permits trained limited license legal technicians to provide limited legal assistance under carefully regulated circumstances, thus expanding the affordability of quality legal assistance while protecting the public interest.

Paralegal and legal assistant responsibilities will continue to evolve as the profession develops in response to the public’s changing needs and the restructuring of the legal system to meet those needs.

Additional contacts for paralegals in Oregon include:

Oregon Paralegal Association:
Oregon State Bar:
Oregon Secretary of State:
Oregon Judicial Department:


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